The first half of the 20th century was a turbulent period in American history. Two World Wars, the Great Depression, and the rise of the Jazz Age created an atmosphere that encouraged a variety of diverse literary movements to develop. Writers such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and Langston Hughes saw this opportunity and took advantage.
The only good thing about Romanticism, was that is motivated authors of the Jazz Age, the Modernist Movement, and the Harlem Renaissance move away from its style. For this reason they were all characterized by different and styles and approaches to writing. The literature of this period didn't look like anything that had come before it.